Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein

Good rundown, disagree with some of the conclusions outside of surrrogacy 220


Un livre clair qui explique en quoi la GPA est une violation des droits humains des femmes et des enfants. Renate Klein aborde de nombreux aspects de la GPA dont deux sont souvent oubliés des débats : le nombre de femmes dont la santé est mise en danger dans une GPA et la misogynie crasse derrière le principe même de la GPA.

Le nombre de femmes dont la santé est mise en danger dans une GPA :

Dès l'introduction Renate Klein explique pour elle met entre guillemets le mot de 'donneuse' d'ovocyte :

Donation (of sperm or blood for instance) is totally different from the invasive and dangerous procedures of producing high number of ripe egg cells in an ovary and then harvesting them.
Dans le chapitre 2, Short and long term harms of surrogacy, elle décrit cette procédure plus en détails : non seulement l'injection d'hormones pour produire un grande nombre d'ovocyte est dangereux pour la santé de la femme (risque plus élevé de cancer, risque d'AVC pour ne citer que les plus graves) mais la procédure d'extraction est toujours à risque (risque d'infection, d'hémorragie, de perforation, perte de l'ovaire etc.). Dans la suite du chapitre, elle décrit tout ce que la mère 'porteuse' doit subir pour mener à terme sa grossesse (sachant qu'une grossesse avec don d'ovocyte est plus à risque qu'une grossesse normale, risque pour la mère comme pour l'enfant à naître) . Le consentement de la mère porteuse est complément ignoré, elle perd tout pouvoir de décision sur son propre corps. La seule lecture de ce chapitre répond il me semble de lui-même à la question : la GPA peut-elle être éthique ? La santé de deux femmes est mis en danger pour qu'un homme (dans un couple hétéro ou homo), puisse avoir un enfant qui porte ses gènes. Renate Klein appelle très justement cela un désir narcissique.

La misogynie crasse derrière le principe de la GPA

Si la GPA met en danger la santé des femmes, elle est aussi profondément misogyne dans son principe. Renate Klein cite Janice Raymond :
If women are different to men, as in pregnancy, then what they get, men have to have access to that too. So that you can’t define motherhood on a standard that is basically pertinent to womanhood, you have to define parenthood on a standard that is very much related to male parenthood, so it’s genetics, and pregnancy doesn’t count. Pregnancy doesn’t count because men can’t do it. So what do they base the standard of parenthood on? What men can do. What can they do? They can contribute genes.
Dans une GPA, la grossesse et l'accouchement ne comptent pas, ce ne sont que des processus nécessaires, un peu comme une boite de pétri. Dans une GPA, la femme qui porte et forme l'enfant à naitre, qui lui donne la vie n'est pas la mère, seul compte la personne qui a donné les gènes. Redéfinir ce qu'est la maternité permet de séparer l'enfant de sa mère en toute légalité. Parce qu'elle n'a pas contribué à ses gènes, elle ne serait pas sa mère, selon une définition masculine de la parentalité. C'est profondément misogyne. Renate Klein cite Barbara Katz Rothman :
Any pregnant woman is the mother of the child she bears … we will not accept the idea that we can look at a woman, heavy with child, and say the child is not hers. The fetus is part of the woman’s body, regardless of the source of the egg and sperm. Biological motherhood is not a service, not a commodity, but a relationship
Surrogacy est un livre très utile pour comprendre cette industrie qui fait de l'argent avec la chair et la santé des femmes et qui traite les enfants comme des biens que l'on peut commander. Merci à l'autrice pour son engagement contre cette exploitation à abolir de toute urgence. 220 A really interesting look at the problems around surrogacy. 220 I had only a surface level understanding of the moral implications and real life travesty of the surrogacy trade, and this book was an excellent beginner's crash course. Short, simple, conversational tone with many citations to follow up on. 220 While the title makes the author's opinion of surrogacy clear, don't dismiss it out of hand if you hold a different view. Far from being an ultra-conservative manifesto, Klein references a wealth of resources, including quotes and viewpoints from pro-surrogacy parties, which are presented without malice before being critically examined. She also makes a point to mention her pro-abortion stance and recognizes prominent gay leaders in the anti-surrogacy movement. Surrogacy starts at square one by describing in easily understandable terms the concepts that will be discussed throughout, including traditional vs. gestational surrogacy, altruistic surrogacy, the use of egg and sperm donors, and a brief overview of the class, racial and socio-economic divides that permeate surrogacy.

From there it progresses naturally to a range of organized topics including short- and long-term harms, effects on the children involved, ethics, regulation vs. abolition, a history of anti-surrogacy efforts and Klein’s ultimate conclusion to stop surrogacy now. I found the entire book to be quite readable in regard to language and industry terminology, with the chapter on regulation as a slight exception. Readers may feel bogged down by listings of various conventions and committees with longwinded names, but Klein does make sure to distill extended descriptions down to the key points, with helpful references to other sections of the book as their topics overlap.

The international scope of surrogacy makes this book applicable for global audiences. Though the author is Australian and often lists Australian cases as examples, the ethics of surrogacy are not bound by borders. Stories and references involving the United States are present, and highly applicable, as the U.S. is one of the few countries where both altruistic and commercial surrogacy are (in certain states) allowed.

“Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation” tears down pro-surrogacy arguments from too many angles to cover here, but they all flow back to soundly support what Klein declares in the title. Commercialization, eugenics, entitlement; a dozen doors are opened for readers to pursue further research after this introduction. “Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation” is not a personal attack or vendetta; it’s not a call to vote a certain way or endorse a certain person. At its core, this book strives to promote the rights and welfare of women and children, and that’s a cause that transcends party lines and international borders. 220 A well-researched & well-argued book against surragacy & the harm it does to women & children. A lot of info on current reproductive research (e.g. artificial wombs) too, which is disturbing.

Side note that was very interesting - the author is supportive of abortion (she states really on), but opposes surragacy because of the violation against the baby (among many reasons). Seems like many of her arguments ironically could be used against abortion as well.

As I read more about this topic I'm learning that there is a desperate need for public awareness & education to the general public about the dangers & harms of surragacy. 220

Pared down to cold hard facts, surrogacy is the commissioning/buying/ renting of a woman into whose womb an embryo is inserted and who thus becomes a ‘breeder’ for a third party. Surrogacy is heavily promoted by the stagnating IVF industry which seeks new markets for women over 40, and gay men who believe they have a ‘right’ to their own children and ‘family foundation’. Pro-surrogacy groups in rich countries such as Australia and Western Europe lobby for the shift to commercial surrogacy. Their capitalist neo-liberal argument is that a well-regulated fertility industry would avoid the exploitative practices of poor countries. Central to the project of cross-border surrogacy is the ideology that legalised commercial surrogacy is a legitimate means to provide infertile couples and gay men with children who share all or part of their genes. Women, without whose bodies this project is not possible are reduced to incubators, to ovens, to suitcases. And the ‘product child’ is a tradable commodity who has never consented to being a ‘take away baby’: removed from their birth mother and given to strangers aka ‘intended parents’. Still, those in favour of this practice of reproductive slavery speak of ‘Fair Trade Surrogacy’ and ‘responsible surrogacy’. In Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation Renate Klein details her objections to surrogacy by examining the short- and long-term harms done to the so-called surrogate mothers, egg providers and the female partner in a heterosexual commissioning couple. Klein also looks at the rights of children and compares surrogacy to (forced) adoption practices. She concludes that surrogacy, whether so-called altruistic or commercial can never be ethical and outlines forms of resistance to Stop Surrogacy Now. It is the global advertising campaigns that groom infertile couples and gay men that have led to the establishment of multibillion cross-border industries: money made literally from women’s flesh. Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation

Free download Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation